From Jean-Paul Kurtz' Dictionary of Civil Engineering:



All natural organic products rich in carbon and hydrogen, poor in volatile products. In this category we can distinguish petroleum gases, crude oils (oil), mineral waxes, asphalts, and asphaltites. One adds there analogous products obtained by retorting of natural organic matters (bituminous schists).
The bitumen appears as a viscous liquid or as a mastic or plastic solid; it is one of the first all thermoplastic materials.

The main types of bitumen are:

artificial bitumen (le bitume artificiel): material made of tar of coal, rosin, and lime;

petroleum asphalt (le bitume de pétrole): the residue from distillation of asphaltic oils;

asphaltic bitumen (le bitume asphaltique): natural material mixed with clay or sand;

smooth asphalt (le bitume coulé): mixture of sand, bituminous mastic, and other bituminous matters, likely to become fluid under the heat and that can to be poured in thin layers.